While post-disaster recovery has frequently been treated as a separate phase distinct from both emergency relief and long-term development, there is increasing recognition that these activities are often integrally related, especially from the perspective of reducing risk and vulnerability. Ultimately the implementation of effective preparedness and risk reduction measures is a necessary aspect of sustainable development, just as relief and recovery activities must start with protecting vulnerable people from further risks. However despite the hyperbole, there are real questions about the extent to which recovery does indeed offer a ‘window of opportunity’ for long-term risk reduction.
Recent disasters including the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, 2005 Hurrican Katrina in the US, 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and 2011 Fukushia triple disaster have brought significant attention to issues of recovery and to the need for strengthening the links from recovery to risk reduction.
- Health and water sanitation
- Community services
- Disaster risk reduction
- Local capacity rebuilding
Three main elements are required to effectively organise our activities over the medium- and long-term:
- A strategic approach
- A modality of operation
- Coordination mechanisms
There are a wide range of options to take forward each of these elements to give us the flexibility we need to work.
|Strategic approach||Modalities||Coordination mechanisms|
Strategy and common objectives:
Joint reporting to ensure the full impact of recovery activities are communicated
Strategic planning cell to local organizations to assist them in interacting with other recovery partners in planning recovery activities.
Operating status, legal architecture, and services
A fuller description of these strategic approaches are outlined here.
Address transitional and long-term shelter needs recognizing differing needs of those that can/cannot return to original sites and those in self-settled and managed camps. Activities include:
- provision of shelter kits and safe building information
- material assistance / cash grants
- reconstruction of permanent housing
Start from the periphery, with low tech and sustainable approaches, and then work toward the center. This will complement where everyone else is focusing at the moment. Key activities include:
- provision of community based health and first aid services
- psychosocial support
- ensuring access to safe water
Develop community livelihoods initiatives that address the needs of individuals, households, and local enterprise. This would include:
- re-establishing local markets
- short-term salary support to teachers, doctors, and nurses to restart community services
Re-establish community health and education services to meet current response needs through
- development/equipping temporary & permanent health centres & schools
- promotion of safety and awareness
- empowerment of community organisations
Ensure risk-informed humanitarian response and recovery through
- contingency planning for other immediate hazards (from secondary impacts or new hazards events)
- advocacy for safe building guidelines
- addressing threats to short- and long-term food security
- environmental management
- community-based disaster risk reduction
Support local organizations to re-establish services and plan future growth through support to
- organizational development of finance, human resource, volunteering, disaster management, and other systems
- strengthening core services related to community safety and resilience (including disaster preparedness, health, and outreach services)
- sustainability through cost recovery, income generation and other strategies
Early recovery refers to recovery assessment, planning and implementation of activities designed to strengthen the quality and impact of our relief interventions and support disaster-affected people through the first few months following a disaster (relief to recovery transition).
Recovery (reconstruction and rehabilitation) refers to the medium to longer-term planning and implementation of substantive recovery programmes in the first year or longer, following a disaster.