In 2001, disaster preparedness delegates from the IFRC and staff from different National Societies defined the characteristics of a well-prepared National Society. Their aim was to prepare a simple tool for disaster preparedness planning. Based on this definition, Well-prepared National Societies (WPNS) is a self-assessment tool that helps National Societies recognize, prioritize and plan activities to improve their disaster management capacity. WPNS gives National Societies the opportunity to reflect on existing capacities and identify areas that need attention. Phase II of WPNS, which covers the period of 2005–2008, was revised to incorporate elements of safer access to reflect a holistic approach towards emergency management, i.e., National Societies capacities to deal with both natural disasters and conflict situations. Published in 2009.