Cash transfers (aka cash-based responses) are mechanisms to provide populations with a form of cash or a cash-equivalent (i.e. vouchers). Cash transfers can serve as a temporary source of income or, in an emergency context, can be complementary to in-kind distributions such as food aid or non-food items. In addition to meeting basic and immediate needs such as water, food, and shelter, CTP can also achieve longer-term objectives such as restoring or protecting livelihoods. Although food aid and in-kind responses are dominant in humanitarian and emergency response, cash-transfer programming (CTP) is a mechanism that is quickly growing, both in scale and the number of actors, to provide immediate relief to people after disasters.